Ulysses - COSPIN-KET

COSPIN-KET Gallery

Here you find some figures related to the mission:

About COSPIN-KET

Flight spare model of the Kiel Electron Telescope
Figure 1: Flight spare model of the Kiel Electron Telescope: Sensor unit and the electronic box in the back. For comparison, a German five-mark coin, which is somewhat larger than a 2-Euro coin, is shown to demonstrate the size of the instrument.
Mounting of the COSPIN sensor units.
Figure 2: Mounting of the COSPIN sensor units. The KET (3) is mounted below the Low Energy Telescope (1), the Anisotropy Telescope (1), the High Energy Telescope (2) and the High Flux Telescope (4).
Location of the different scientific instruments on Ulysses.
Figure 3: Location of the different scientific instruments on Ulysses. The antenna is pointing towards the Earth and corresponds to the axis of rotation. The arrow shows the location of the COSPIN instrument group on board the spacecraft.

Jupiter science and Ulysses COSPIN/ KET

Photo of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Telescope.
Figure 4: Photo of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Telescope.
Daily averaged count rate of 3-10~MeV electrons along the Ulysses trajectory from 1991 to 1993.
Figure 5: Daily averaged count rate of 3-10~MeV electrons along the Ulysses trajectory from 1991 to 1993. The count rate increased when Ulysses approached Jupiter, and decrease after the closest approach, indicating that the planet is a source of MeV electrons.
Jovian electron distribution in the ecliptic.
Figure 6: Jovian electron distribution in the ecliptic. The highest electron intensities are found close to Jupiter. The intensity decreases with distance to the planet. Since particles are moving more easily along the heliospheric magnetic field, the intensities decreases less along the Parker Spiral (Ferreira et al., 2003)
Measurements of MeV electrons close to Earth.
Figure 7: Measurements of MeV electrons close to Earth. The 13 month periodicity in the MeV electron flux is a consequence of the particle propagation preferable along the magnetic field line. Earth and the planet have their best magnetic connection every 13 month due to the yearly and 12 year periodicity of Earth and Jupiter.
Ulysses trajectory in coordinate system where Jupiter and the Sun are fixed.
Figure 8: Ulysses trajectory in coordinate system where Jupiter and the Sun are fixed. The green line displays a magnetic field line going through Jupiter. The blue line represents the trajectory before the Jovian encounter in 1992. Ulysses first, second and third out-of ecliptic orbit are given by the black, red and cyan lines, respectively. Note that Ulysses has been more than 10 AU away from the planet in 1998and that the spacecraft came again close to the giant planet in 2004.
Measurements of MeV electrons by Ulysses.
Figure 9: Measurements of MeV electrons by Ulysses. Highesr intensities have been observed in 1992, when the spacecraft approached Jupiter and in 2004 during the distant flyby. Due to the complex spacecraft trajectory and the changing particle propagation conditions the variation of the KET are not as simple as the measurements at Earth.

Galactic cosmic rays and Ulysses COSPIN/ KET

The Crab Nebula
Figure 10: Current explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is that particles are accelerated by huge shock waves, probably in supernova remnants. One of the famoused supernova remnants is the Crab nebula.
The Sun, an ordinary G2V star
Figure 11: The Sun, an ordinary G2V star, is the largest object in the solar system. It consist at present of about 70% hydrogen and 28% helium by mass everything else amounts to less than 2%. The Figure displays the Sun as seen in different wavelength. The concept of the corona's supersonic expansion, the solar wind, was introduced by Parker (1958). Its existence was confirmed with Mariner 2 in 1962 (Snyder and Neugebauer, 1963).
Schematic view of the heliosphere.
Figure 12: The interaction of the supersonic solar wind with the local interstellar medium leads to a transition from supersonic to subsonic speeds at the heliospheric termination shock. Such a transition might also occur when the interstellar wind is slowed down at the heliospheric bow shock. In this picture the heliopause is defined as the boundary layer between the local interstellar medium and the solar wind. The exact geometry as well as the dimension of the heliosphere are uncertain (NASA).

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